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Diagnostics and treatment of thyroid abnormalities

The thyroid gland - is one of the endocrine glands, synthesizing a series of hormones necessary for maintaining a stable condition of the body

The basic thyroid hormones are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) which are iodinated hormones, and the peptide hormone- the calcitonin. In addition, thyroid tissue accumulates and stores the amino acid tyrosine in the form of a special protein thyroglobulin required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones.

Thyroid hormones are involved in key metabolic processes of the human body, the processes of formation, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, maintaining a constant body temperature, energy production. In addition, they affect physical, mental and intellectual development of the organism, and their deficit in early age can lead to stunted growth and mental development, provoke bone disease. With their participation, there is stimulation of the immune system cells responsible for the body to fight infectious agents.

The causes of thyroid abnormalities are primarily a genetic predisposition, as well as numerous environmental stresses (adverse ecological and environmental background radiation, psycho-emotional stress, an unbalanced diet, infections, intake of medicines.

Diagnostics of thyroid gland diseases includes the following survey methods:

  • Instrumental techniques: X-ray examination of the neck, chest, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Laboratory methods (concentration of thyroid hormone in the blood).
  • The physical (examination for detection of nodal disease, the size and consistency of the thyroid gland).

There are a lot of diseases of the thyroid gland. But depending on the activity of the thyroid gland, they can be divided into:

  • Diseases associated with increased production of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism).
  • Diseases characterized by a decrease in the synthesis of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism).
  • The diseases that are not followed by changes in the functional activity associated with morphological changes in the structure of the thyroid gland (goiter, hyperplasia, formation of nodes).

Thyreotoxicosis - a thyroid disorder characterized by sustained elevated levels of thyroid hormones, which leads to an increase in the rate of metabolic processes of the body. Manifestations of this condition are sleep disturbances, weight loss with increased appetite, irritability, increased heart rate, increased body temperature and sweating.

Hypothyroidism - is a thyroid disorder characterized by low levels of thyroid hormone secretion. Symptoms of this disease develop slowly and mildly expressed in the early stages of the disease.In case of chronic diseases there is a constant decrease in body temperature and energy production. Clinically hypothyroidism is manifested by rapid weight gain, dry skin, fatigue, weakness, memory loss, dullness and brittle hair, swelling.Women may experience irregular menstruation. Moreover, hypothyroidism is a frequent companion of depression, and patients are referred to a psychologist.

Increased goiter - is another common thyroid disease.It is manifested by an increase of the thyroid gland over the normal range. In addition to standard methods of research for correct diagnosis it is necessary to conduct fine-needle aspiration biopsy under ultrasound control.

The standard treatment for thyroid cancer is the administration of conservative medical treatment. The dosage and medication can be prescribed only by endocrinologist. In addition, there is the need to undergo constantly laboratory and ultrasound diagnostics for monitoring the status of the thyroid gland.

At unsatisfactory analyzes of biopsy sample of the thyroid gland, obtained with fine-needle aspiration biopsy   its surgical removal can be indicated.

Indications for thyroidectomy may be the presence of malignant cells in a biopsy sample, the size of the node of 3 cm or more, the rapid growth of nodes with unclear results of the biopsy, "cool sites» not producing thyroid hormones according to the results of scintigraphy.

Contraindications to thyroidectomy are age older than 75 years, severe heart failure, and blood clotting disorders.


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