The human heart - is a unique organ. It begins to work even before the birth. The child is not yet born, and we can already hear the beating of his little heart! Blood which every minute, every second is pumped by heart through the vessels, carries life-giving oxygen and nutrients to all organs and tissues of the human body. In cases when heart activity is disturbed, the lack of oxygen causes severe disorders of all organs and systems up to the death of the organism. In a healthy person heart beats with a frequency of 60-80 beats per minute. And at physical or emotional stress this frequency increases. Unfortunately, there are a number of diseases when the heart rate is slowing (bradycardia), i.e. the heart rate (pulse rate) falls below 55 beats per minute. In such cases, the patient comes to the aid of a pacemaker.
PACEMAKER (synonyms - cardiac pacemaker, an artificial pacemaker) is a device that makes the heart to contract when their own (natural) pacemaker is unable to cause contraction of the heart muscle. The main reason for installation of a pacemaker is an insufficient heart rate (slow heart rate) .This state is accompanied by signs of heart failure: shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue, dizziness. The slightest physical activity leads to a sharp intensification of the described symptoms. In the most severe cases a brief heart failure with loss of consciousness can occur. Such stops (pauses) are a potential threat to the life of the patient. Cardiac pacemaker is needed in order to get the heart to contract in the necessary rhythm to eliminate pauses and a sharp slowdown in the rhythm of the heart. Modern pacemakers are composed of electrodes connected to housing unit. In a hermetic metal case power source (battery), electric pulse generator, control unit are located. There is a mini-processor and the memory card where information about heart rhythm, recorded by the device is stored. That is currently pacemaker is a mini computer. The main function of a permanent pacemaker is the creation of electrical impulses that cause the heart muscle contraction in the absence of their own heartbeats. Hence, the second most important function of a pacemaker is the registration of own rate. In case of a significant slowing of the heart rate or a complete cessation of cardiac activity device registers a break and starts to produce electrical impulses. Through a system of electrodes, these impulses are conducted directly to the heart, causing its contraction. The heart will beat at the same frequency with which the physician programmed the instrument. Thus, the cardiac pacemaker replaces its own electrical activity of the myocardium only when it is really needed. The operation of installing a pacemaker is performed in the operating room, equipped with a special X-ray machine, usually under local anesthesia. The doctor makes a small (4-5 cm) incision on the right or left of the sternum below the clavicle, and prepares a place to house the housing. Then through the venous system electrodes are conducted directly to the heart, where they are attached to the heart muscle. This procedure requires constant monitoring, carried out with the help of X-ray apparatus. Only after the electrodes are fixed to the wall of the heart, the surgeon connects them to the generator carries out the setup of the device and sutures the incision.