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Treatment of lung cancer

Lung cancer - this is such a group of malignant tumors of the lung, the occurrence of which comes from the epithelial cells lining the bronchi or lungs. The characteristic features of these tumors are rapid growth, and the rapid metastasis.

In most cases, this pathology occurs in men, approximately 7-10 times more frequently compared to women. Also the occurrence of lung cancer in patients is marked proportionately at age: in men of 60-69 years, the likelihood of the disease is 60 times higher compared to the 30-39 year olds.

Unfortunately,  the true mechanisms of regeneration of normal, healthy cells into the tumor is not revealed, but today it is known that the malignant transformation of cells is directly related to exposure to certain chemicals (carcinogens).

In general, the causes of lung cancer are divided into:

Endogenous (internal):

  • presence of chronic lung disease;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • hormonal shifts;
  • age 50 and older.

External:

  • smoking - this factor is associate with 90% of cases of this disease since there is a constant inhalation of carcinogenic substances contained in tobacco smoke and smoking of two or more packs of cigarettes a day increases the risk of disease in 25-125 times;
  • unfavorable environment due to inhalation of carcinogenic substances in the air;
  • harmful conditions of work - mostly contact with nickel, cadmium, arsenic, chloromethyl, mercury, chromium, asbestos, radon;
  • Ionizing radiation;
  • chronic lung diseases (tuberculosis, pneumonia).

On localization of lung cancer is divided into:

  • The peripheral - its development occurs in the lung parenchyma.
  • Central - the large bronchi lesion occurs .

From the viewpoint of the morphology:

  • small cell lung cancer;
  • the non-small cell lung cancer.

Their main difference is in the nature of the clinical course and sensitivity to chemo and radiation therapy.

The symptoms of lung cancer depend on the extent and localization of tumors. However, approximately 15% of cases there are no manifestation of the disease. In order not to miss it, you must take an annual fluorography.

There may be non-specific symptoms such as chest pain, weight loss, cough, coughing up blood, shortness of breath. Identifying the most part of these symptoms should cause to think about and consult a doctor immediately. Unfortunately, for many other diseases characterized by the same symptoms, so patients are treated for help, often in the later stages.

Attention should be paid on such indirect signs such as loss of activity, lethargy and listlessness, causeless slight increase in temperature.

In addition, attention should be paid to the laboratory and clinical paraneoplastic syndrome, which consists in hypernatremia (with small cell carcinoma), hypercalcemia (squamous carcinoma), hypertrophicosteoarthropathy, etc.

There aresigns that are associated with tumor metastasis:

  • excruciating pain at the site of metastasis in bone tissue, as well as fractures during normal everyday activities;
  • the spreading of tumors in the brain may experience neurological symptoms, including cramps, headaches, blurred vision, stroke symptoms, muscle weakness or complete loss of sensation in certain parts of the body;
  • voice hoarseness while growing into recurrent nerve;
  • dysphagiawhen esophagus is damaged;
  • compartment syndrome of the superior vena cava if tumor growing into it.

The immediate visit to a doctor is required in case of the following features:

  • sudden appearance of fatigue and / or a significant reduction in body weight;
  • a persistent cough or worsening of an existing chronic cough;
  • persistent bronchitis or frequent respiratory infections;
  • appearance of blood in the sputum;
  • chest pain;
  • difficulty in breathing, including shortness of breath and when breathing with wheezing.

Diagnosis of lung cancer includes:

  • the non-invasive methods - CT, MRI, X-ray, examination, ultrasound of the abdomen;
  • invasive methods - thoracoscopy, bronchoscopy, transthoracic needle biopsy of the tumor.

Surgical treatment is the principal in this pathology. After a detailed examination and assessment of the situation the amount of intervention required is determined, which depends on the extent of the tumor and its location.

In case of peripheral lung cancer lobectomy is carried out most commonly (removal of the lobe of the lung). When a central cancer –pnumonectomy (complete removal of the lung). In some cases, this type of lung cancer can be performed bronhoplastic operation, the result of which is to preserve the lobe with imposing interbronchial anastomosis.

If   adjacent anatomical structures of the mediastinum and chest wall are involved into the pathological process, the performing of combined operations with the removal of these structures is indicated.

The present level of development of medicine makes it possible to perform complex surgery on the trachea, heart and lung, using heart-lung machine. And the use of videothoracoscopy in surgical practice allows you to perform less traumatic surgery, through a small incision in the chest, making the removal of part or the entire lung.

In addition to the surgical treatment radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be indicated. The treatment of such diseases as lung cancer needs dispensary observation after treatment. In the first year, every three months you must take inspection, perform abdominal ultrasound and chest X-ray.

The main preventive measures aimed at minimizing the risk of lung cancer is smoking cessation, as well as the elimination of the effects of tobacco smoke. It is believed that 10 years after quitting the risk of developing this disease is returned to the original minimum.

In addition, it is necessary to eliminate contact with heavy metals, asbestos dust.  to remove radon Effectively  from the rooms  the regular wet cleaning will help, as well as regular cross-ventilation,  painting walls and concreting floors, sealed concrete plinth of the building.

You must also adhere to the rational, proper nutrition with the inclusion into the diet of fruits, vegetables and herbs, which include vitamins E, C and vitamin A.