Patients with malignant tumors require a special approach to rehabilitation procedures, especially after the finished radical treatment of malignant tumors, due to the presence of significant negative consequences after such therapy.
Physicians in the Republic of Belarus have successfully developed rehabilitation procedures for patients after surgical, complex and combined treatment of the following diseases:
- cancer of mammary gland,
- cancer of female reproductive organs,
- cancer of thyroid and parathyroid glands,
- malignant tumors of digestive tract organs ( gastrectomy, subtotal stomach resection, pancreaticoduodenal resection, resection of a segment of small intestine, hepatectomy).
Early recovery period
Rehabilitation, carried out at early recovery period, includes a number of treatment and rehabilitation procedures aiming at optimal treatment effect and fast restoration of vital activity of a patient. The main procedures in this case are carried out aiming at the prevention, treatment of general and local postoperative complications, side effects after chemotherapy and early radioreactions.
Rehabilitation of patients with postoperative complications at remote periods
Also rehabilitation includes a complex of treatment and recovery procedures in case of postoperative complications at remote period:
- after operations on mammary glands with postoperative complications — secondary lymphedema of upper limbs, postirradiation pneumonitis, shoulder joint arthrosis, plexopathy, contractures;
- after operations on pelvic organs with further postcastration syndrome, secondary lymphedema of lower limbs;
- after operations on small bowel with further malabsorption syndrome;
- after operations on stomach with further development of dumping syndrome at postoperative period, syndrome of «small» stomach, agastric asthenia, postgastrectomy anemia, afferent loop syndrome.
Rehabilitation of patients after operation on the stomach and pancreatic gland
Patients after operations on the stomach and pancreatic gland are given recommendations about diet and taking of food, enteral and parenteral nutrition, attend lectures «Lectures for patients after operation on stomach and pancreatic gland».
Rehabilitation of patients after operation on thyroid and parathyroid glands
Patients after operations on thyroid and parathyroid glands require a special care. The aim of rehabilitation procedures at this kind of pathology is, first of all, a correction of states developed at early period after the operation or at a remote postoperative period.
At first a physician prescribes a hormonal therapy taking into consideration the histological form of the disease, comorbidity and age of a patient. Later physicians give recommendations concerning the frequency of control of hormonal state, carried out outpatiently.
If it is necessary there is a correction of complications induced by reduction of calcium level at postoperative period, dose selection of calcium, vitamin D and its active metabolites. In case of traumatic injury of facial and trigeminal nerves a physician prescribes medicamentous treatment, and in case of pareses of recurrent nerve – in combination with special phonopedic rehabilitation measures (irrigation of larynx by oily solutions and phonopedic exercises).
Physiotherapeutic procedures are widely used and are very effective methods of rehabilitation, they fasten the process of wound healing, correct dystonias and neuropathies, which can develop after the operation.
Medical specialists have worked out a special program for such patients «School for patients with thyroid diseases» which contains the rules of drug taking, diet therapy, behavioral rules at postoperative period.
Psychotherapeutic care is an obligatory part of individual rehabilitation program. Psychotherapist and psychologist will help to sort out patient’s feelings, restore emotional balance, solve accumulated problems, bring back the vitality of life.
The most modern treatment methods are applied today at psychotherapeutic unit. Selection and prescription of drugs is carried out taking into consideration peculiarities of the disease, that minimizes risk. Apart from the application of drugs the treatment includes teaching the methods of relaxation with the application of music therapy and aromatherapy, which create comfortable and cosy atmosphere, help a patient to restore emotional balance, attain harmony and find a solution to life problems.